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Ord 62 Regulating the Construction or Repair of Streets or Storm Sewers including feesORDINANCE NUMBER 62 AN ORDINANCE OF THE TOWN OF WESTLAKE REGULATING THE CONSTRUCTION OR REPAIR OF STREETS OR STORM SEWERS; REQUIRING PERMIT; ESTABLISHING PERMIT FEES; REQUIRING BOND; PROHIBITING STREET CUTS; REQUIRING SUPERVISION AND APPROVAL; DECLARING EMERGENCY; BE IT ORDAINED BY THE CITY COUNCIL OF THE TOWN OF WESTLAKE, TEXAS, that: SECTION 1. COUNCIL TO DETERMINE NATURE AND EXTENT OF IMPROVEMENTS. The City Council shall, from time to time, fix and determine the nature and ex- tent of street and/or storm sewer improvements and the kind of material and con- struction in such improvements. SECTION 2. PERMIT. No person shall construct, reconstruct, cut or repair any street or storm sewer within the city limits, without first obtaining from the engineering department a permit so to do. No such permit shall be granted unless the two (2) year maintenance bond provided for in Section 4 is in -full force and effect at the time of request for such per- mit and the doing of the work. SECTION 3. PERMIT FEES. No person shall be granted a permit to construct, reconstruct, cut -or repair any sheet or storm sewer on any public property, without paying certain fees to the city for inspection of such work, as follows: (a) Street construction - $.05 per lineal foot, measured along the gutter, with a minimum fee of $5.00. (b) Street cut - $2.00 per lineal foot, measured along the center line of the cut, with a minimum fee of $6.00; provided that no permit fee is required when ap- plicant for permit requests street department to repair the cut and deposits $1.25 per square foot to cover the cost of such repair. (c) Storm sewer (including all inlets, manholes, mains and lateral. lines)- 15Y. of total contract price. SECTION 4. BOND REQUIRED. No person shall construct, reconstruct, cut or repair any street or storm sewer in the city without executing and delivering to the city a bond payable to the Town of Westlake, Tarrant and Denton Counties, Texas, from an approved surety company, and in certain sums as follows: Ordinance No.62 °- 2 (a) Street construction - $5,000 (b) Street cuts - $2,500 (c) Storm sewer $2,500 Such bond shall be conditioned that all work clone in the construction, reconstruc- tion, cut or repair of any street or storm sewer shall be done in a good and work- manlike manner, and that such person shall faithfully and strictly comply lVith the specifications and with the terms of the City Code and such ordinances, resolutions or regulations that may be Massed by the City Council governing and relating to the construction, reconstruction, cut or repair of any street or storm sewers, and than the City shall be fully indemnified and be held whole and harmless from any and all costs, expense or damage, whether real or asserted, on account of any injury clone to any person or property in the prosecution of such work, or that may arise out of or be occasioned by the performance of such work. Such bond shall be conditione" further that the principal shall, without additional cost to the person for whom the work was done, maintain all streets or storm sewcrs so constructed, reconstructE- cut or repaired by the principal for a period of two (2) years from the date of finL' acceptance of such construction, reconstruction, cut or repair to the satisfaction the engineering department of the City, and shall reconstruct or repair any street or storm sewer to the satisfaction of the engineering department of the City at any time within two (2) years after the final acceptance of the construction, recon- struction, cut or repair of any street or storm sewer and after ten (10) clays notic. from the engineering department to reconstruct or repair the same, and that the opinion of the engineering department as to the necessity of such reconstruction or repair shall be binding on the parties.thereto. Stich gond shall, for the purposes mentioned above, be in force for two (2) years after t1r_ ie (Anal acceptance of any street ostorm sewer which is constructed, re- constructed, cut or repaired and one recovery shall not exhaust the bond, but such bond oliall be a continuing obligation against the sureties thereon until the entire asTaunt therein provided for shall have been exhausted. In case the bond shall be deer. ease(I on account of any recovery which may be obtained, arising out of the vio- lation >f any condition o -f the same, the City Council shall require, upon notice tr it of such fact, an additional bond to be given in accordance with this section in an amount sufficient, when added to the nonexhausted amount of the original bond, to,be at all tames equal to the sum of the original bond required. The City may, for itself or for the use and benefit of any person injured or damage.: by reason of any defective construction, reconstruction, cut or repair of any stree- or storm sewer by any person, maintain suit on such bond in any court having juris- diction thereof, or suit may be maintained thereon by any person injured or damaged by reason of the failure of any person who shall construct, reconstruct, cut or re- pair any street or storm sewer in the City to observe the conditions of such bond. SECTION 5. SPECIFICATIONS. Streets and storm sewer shall be constructed, reconstructed, cut or repaired in ac,,cnxdance with streets and storm sewer specifications for the City, attached heret, as Exhibit A and on file in the office of the City Engineer. Ordinance No. 62 - 3 - SECTION 6. PROHIBITING CUT OF IMPROVED STREETS. No -underground utility installation shall be placed under a permanently improved street, except by boring or jacking such crossing from curb line to curb line. An open cut shall be permitted only with the approval of the city engineering dr-- partment in such case as it is impractical to bore or jack under a permanently improved street due to the presence of rock or other obstruction, and the repair of such cut shall be in accordance with Section 5. SECTION 7. SUPERVISION AND APPROVAL OF WORK. All work done in construction, reconstruction, cutting and repairing of streets and storm sewer shall be done under the supervision and subject to the direction and approval of the city engineering department, whose decision shall be final. SECTION 8. EMERGENCY CLAUSE. In order to protect the Health, safety and welfare of the citizens of the Town of Westlake, this Ordinance is hereby adopted as an emergency measure and shall be in full force and effect from and after this date of passage. PASSED AND APPROVED this � • day of ,��- 197 231. APPROVED: Mayor A` IPEST: LZ C L ,. Secretar EXHIBIT A TOWN OF WESTLAKE SPECIFICATIONS FOR STREETS AND STORM SEWER CONSTRUCTION I. DEFINITION. The term "streets and storm sewer", as used in this article shall include but not restricted to new streets, reworked streets, street repair, storm sewer mains, storm sewer laterals, storm sewer inlets, storm sewer manholes, storm sewer concrete boxes, storm sewer culvArts, bridges and drainage chan- nels. These specifications shall apply to arty street construction or drain- age construction of any nature installed in or on any public property or easements with the Town of Westlake. I.I. PLANS. All plans and profiles for the construction of streets and storm sewer sys- tem shall be reviewed and approved by the City Engineer. After the approval of the City Engineer has been obtained, and so noted on the original plans and profile sheets, three copies of the approved drawings must be furnished the Engineering Department prior to -rhe commencement of any work. Plans and profile sheets for new streets and storm sewer construction shall be 22 -inches by 36 -inches, drawn by and bear the seal of a registered Pro- Jfess-ional Engineer. III. GENERAL. A. Water for Construction: The 0,_4ner will furnish, at the published charge, to the Contractor water for construction at any fire hydrant. The Contrac- tor, however, will have to furnish whatever hose, tank trucks, valves, mnteru wrenches, and whatever else is required for use of this water. B. Signs: The removal and replacement of City street sign posts and signs is the responsibili.t:y of the Contractor. The Contractor shall be responsi- ble for all damage to street sign posts and signs within the limits of hiS operations that remain in place; or are removed and replaced. In even: street sign posts and signs are injured or destroyed by the Contractor's operations, they shall be replaced by the Contractor. C. Existing Utilities and Service Lines: The Contractor shall be rosponsi.- ble for�the.protcetion of all existing utilities or service lines crossed or exposed by his construction operations. adhere existing; utilities or service lines are cut, broken or damaged, the Contractor shall replace or repair th,-, utilities or service lines with the same type of original material and con- struction, or better. - 1 - D. Barricades and Lights: 14here the work is carried on in or adjacent, to any street, alley or clic place, the Contractor shall furnish and erect such barricades,, fences, battery type flasher -markers and danger signals, shall, provide such watchmen, and shall provide such other precautionary measures for the protection of persons or property and of the work as nec- essary. Barricades shall be painted in a color that will be visible at dight. From sunset to sunrise the Contractor shall furnish and maintain at least one battery type flasher -marker at each barricade and sufficient number of barricades shall be erected to keep,vehicles from being driven on or into any work under construction. The Contractor will be held responsible :dor all damage to the work due to failure of barricades, signs, lights, and watchmen to protect it, and when- ever evidence is found of such damage the Engineer may order the damaged portion immediately removed and replaced by the Contractor. The Contrac- tor's responsibility for the maintenance of barricades, signs, and lights, and for providing watchmen shall not cease until the project shall have been accepted by the Owner. E. Engineer's Authority and Duty: Unless otherwise specified, the Engin- eer shall inspect all work specified herein. The Engineer shall have the authority to stop the work whenever such stoppage may be necessary in his opinion for the protection of the public. F. Final Cleaning Up: Upon completion of the work, the Contractor shall clean, remove ru is and restore in an acceptable manner all property which has been damaged in any way. Leave the site of work in a neat and presentable condition throughout. Upon completion of any structures, all excess material, cofferdams, temporary structures and debris resulting from construction shall be removed. (there work is in a stream, all debris shall be removed to the ground line of the stream bed, and channels shall be left unobstructed and in a neat and presentable condition and as directed by the Engineer. G. Final Inspection: Whenever the work has been satisfactorily completed and the final, cleaning up performed, the Contractor or developer shall notify the City for a final inspection. Upon final inspection of the streets, drainage and/or structures, the City Engineer will issue a letter of acceptance to the developer with a copy to the Contractor if the streets, drainage and/or structures have no defects. If not, a letter detailing what steps must be taken in order to correct the defects will be sent. The contractor will. be allowed fifteen (15) days to correct any defects from the date of rejection. Should the contractor fail to remedy said defects, there shall be a penalty of $25.00 a day from the 16th day until the defects are repaired. If the streets are not accepted by the City Engineer, no final building inspections shall be made on houses fronting upon such streets not shall the houses be occupied. -- 2 - IV. EXCAVATION. A. Description: Excavation shall include the furnishing of all work which is necessary for.the preparation and construction of the road -bed, embankmev'., subgrade, parjcways, shoulders, trenches for curbs, gutters and combined curbs and gutters, drainage ditches, and cross street approaches and etc, all in conformity with the lines, grades, and dimensions shown on the ,plans or as directed by the Engineer. Excavation shall_ include all necessary scarifying.; plowing, discing, moving, shaping, sirinkling and compacting to bring the roadbed, embankment, subgrade, etc., slopes and ditches to the lines and grad: and conforming to the typical cross sections shown on the plans. Excavation shall also include the removal and satisfactory disposal of all trees, brush_, stumps, posts, fences, weeds, rock, concrete, existing pavement, gravel, mac_. adam, sidewalks, curbs and gutters, culverts, pipes, manholes, and inlets where required, and all other structures, materials, or debris. Grass, weeds, and other vegetable matter shall be cut and disposed of and all trees will be removed to a distance of 4 feet back of curb or as directed by the Engineer belo.re the grading and excavating operations beg -=_n. Existing structures such as manholes, inlets, cleanouts, valve boxes, etc., which are not to be removed or abandoned, and which are not the property of a private firm, company, or individual required to�move their own property, sha).'' be adjusted, altered or reset to the required elevation and alignment. Rock, detached boulders and existing structures which are abandoned shall be removed to a depth of not less than one foot below the subgrade elevation. Rock excavation shall extend z -foot below the required subgrade elevation for the entire road bed width, from 10 --feet back of curb to 1 -foot back of curb, or as directed by the Engineer, and shall be backfilled with select materials as directed by the Engineer. Mien required by the plans or as directed by the Engineer, selected materials from the excavation shall be utilized to improve the road bed, in which case the work shall be performed in such manner and sequence that suitable materli::" may be selected, removed separately and deposited in the roadway within the limits and to the required elevations. Limits of excavation where curb and gutter is involved shall be one (1) foot outside of the back of the curie and gutter section and to a depth necessary to obtain proper subgrade elevation. Soft, spongy or other unstable foundation material shall be removed to the depth directed by the Engineer, and shall be replaced by select materials and compacted. Care shall be exercised so as not to disturb the natural ground below the re- quired finished subgrade elevations except for construction of structures, or when so ordered by the Engineer, except where the }dans specify the uniform scarifying below the subgrade elevation. The finished grades, of the excavation or fills on parkways, slopes, etc., will be finished to a grade not to exceed 24 -inches incline or decline from the top of the curb & -;utter to the property line. All excavation shall be completed prior to the placing of any curb & gutter. - 3 - The Contractor shall at all times make ample provisions for ccftplet ely and readily draining the subgrades and excavations at all times. V. STRUCTURAL EXCAVATION. A. Description: This item shall govern the excavation for the placing of structures; for the disposal of all material obtained from such excavation; and for the backfilling around completed structures to the level of the orig- inal ground. Unless otherwise provided, the work included hereunder shall provide for the removal of old structures or portions thereof (such as abut- ments, wing walls, piers), trees, and all other obstructions necessary to the proposed construction. For all single and multiple box culverts, pipe culverts, pipe arch culverts, an? storm sewers of all types, where the soil encountered at established foot- ing grade is a quicksand, muck or similar unstable material, the following procedure shall be used unless other methods are called for on the plans or approved by the Engineer.. All unstable soil shall be removed to a depth 2 - feet below the bottom of culverts or storm sewers 2 -feet or more in height and to a depth equal to the height of the culverts or storm sewers less than 2 -feet in height. Such excavation shall be carried at least one foot beyond the horizontal limits of the structure on all sides. All unstable soil so removed shall be replaced with suitable stable material,approved by the Engi- neer, (sand alone is not considered suitable material), placed in uniform layers of suitable depth for compaction as directed by the Engineer and each .layer shall be wetted, if necessary, and compacted by rolling or tamping as required to provide a stable foundation for the structure. V1. EMBANKMENT. A. Description: Embankment shall. consist of the placement and compaction o% all materials obtained from street excavation, borrow or any other excavation in the construction of streets. B. Construction Methods: Prior to placing any embankment, all clearing and grubbing and site preparation shall have been completed. Stump holes or other small excavations within the limits of the embankment shall have been back- filled with suitable materials and thoroughly tamped or compacted in an ap- proved manner and inspected by the Engineer before commencing the embankment construction. The surface of the ground, including plowed or loosened ground or small ditches or washes, shall be restored approximately to its original slope by bladinQ or other methods, and shall be. compacted by sprinkling and rolling. The surface of hillsides shall. be loosened by scarifying; or plowing to a depth of not less than �? inch'es car cut into steps befr re embankment materials are placed. The embankment shall. then be placed in layers as hereinafter spcci- ried, by beginning at the low side in part width layers and increasing the widths as the embankment is raised. The material which has been loosened shall be recompacted simultaneously with the embankment material placed at the same elevation. - 4 - fv'here embankment is to be placed ovet or adjacent to existing roadbeds, the slopes shall be plowed or scarified to a depth of not less than 4 -inches and the embankment built upAn successive layers as hereinafter specified, to the level of old ro dbed before its height is increased, then the old roadbed shal_i. be scarified and recompacted with the next layer or embankment. The total depth of the scarified and added material shall not exceed the permissible depth of the layer. `gees, stumps, .roots, vegetation, and other unsuitable materials shall not be placed in embankment. All embankment: shall be constructed in 8 -inch layers approximately parallel_ to the finished grade of the street and shell be so constructed as nearly as pos- sible to concorm to cross section of the subgrade section Embankment shell be constructed to the established grade and to the shape of thy: typical sections shown on the plans and each section shall conform to the detailed sections or slopes. Atter completion of the embankment, it sball be continuously maintained to its finished section and grade until the base or pavement is placed. C. Classification: Earth embankment shall be composed principally of mate- rials other than rock and shall be composed of acceptable materials, and shall_ be constructed in successive layers, for the full width of specified depths or cross sections and in such lengths as are suitable for the sprinkling and . cow paction methods to be used. Prior to compaction the layers shall not exceed 8 --inches in depth for rolling with sheep -foot rollers. Layers of embankment may be formed by utilizing equipment which will spread the material as it is dumped, or they may be formed by being spread by blading or other acceptable methods From Liles or windrows dumped from excavation or hauling equipment in such amounts that the material is uniformly distributed. Hinor quantities of rock shall be incorporated in the specified earth embank- nont layers, or may be ,laced in accordance with the hereinafter specified requirements for the construction of rock embankments in the deeper fills, provided such placement of rock is not immediately adjacent to any pipe or structure. Rock may also be placed outside the limits of the completed road- bed width where the size of the rocks prohibits their incorporation in the normal earth embankment layers. Each layer of earth embankment shall be uniform as to material, density and moisture content before beginning comi,acl.ion. ,drere non --uniform layers abut: each other, each Layer shall be Leather edged or the materials shall be so mixed as to l,reveK abrupt: changes in the materials. No material placed in the embankment by dumping in a Virile or windrow shall be incorporated in a layer in that position; but all such piles or windrows shall be moved by blading or ether acceptable methods. Clods or lumps of material sha7.l be broken and mixed in the earth embankment material_ by blading, harro wine, o.r.- similar methods so that a uniform mat:crrial of uniform density is securod 0:'1 each layer. Water required for sprinkling to bring the material to the mois- ture content necessary for maximum compaction shall be uniformly applied, vm6 it shall be Lyre Contractor' responsibility to secure a uniform moisture con -- tent throughout each layer by such methods as may be necessary. - 5 -- Earth embankment shall be compacted as hereinafter specified. Rolling shall commence immediately after the embankment layer has been brought to the uni- form moisture content, and shall continue, with or without additional appli- cation of water until each layer of earth embankment has been uniformly can--- pactr_d to a standard proctor density of 15%. All earth cuts, full or part widths in side hill, which are not. required -0 be excavated below subgrade elevation for base and backfilled, shall be scarified to a uniform depth of not less than 6 --inches below grade and the material shall be mixed and reshaped by blading and then sprinkled and rolled in accordance with the hereinabove requirements for earth embankment and to the same density as that required for the adjacent earth embankments. Earth embankment placed adjacent to and over pipes, culverts, arches and bridges shall be of suitable soil free of rocks or lumps and shall be placcd in successive layers approximately horizontal. Special care shall be taken to prevent wedging action against the structure, and shall be brought u>> uni- formly on each side of the structure. for such distances along embankments adjacent to structures where it is.impracticable to use compaction methods by rolling, the embankment material shall be placed in layers not exceedini.; 8--inahes in depth of loose material, thoroughly wet uniformly to the requires moisture content by additional sprinkling if necessary, until each layer h7, - been uniformly compacted to a standard proctor density of 95%, supPlcamonted by such hand work as is necessary to secure a uniform and thoroughly com- pacted fill.. D. Material Selection: In addition to the foregoing selection of wateriols and utilization of the materials in the embankment, the embankment shall be constructed in proper sequence to receive select materials specified or shown on the plans, with such modifications as may be directed by the Engi- neer. The layer of embankment immediately preceeding the first layer of base materials shall be constructed to the required cross section and to thL. elevation within a tolerance of not more than z -inch :from the established cross section or elevation after proper compaction and finish to receivo the base material layer. E. Density: For each layer of earth embankment and base material, it is !4 intention of this specification to secure an apparent dry density of the r.:inu , inch material of not less than 95 per -cent of the maximum dry density of samples of the material as determined by the"Standard Proctor Density inn 4..act_ion Test"'. After each section of earth embankment or select mater.: al is completed, such tests as are necessary will be selected by the Eng-i.reer. W7 the material fails to meet the density specified, the last layer of material i.laced shall be scarified and Qompacted again and the compaction metbo? will be altered on subsequent work as is necessary to obtain the specified donvity. All density tests will be paid for by the Contractor. F, Rolling Methods: The embankment: or base material shall be wetted as di- rected by the Engineer. Rolling shall start longitudinally at the sides on(., proceed toward the center, overlapping on successive trips at least z of lht_� width of the tamping roller unit and z of the width of the pneumatic tiro - 6 - roller unit. Alternate trips of the roller unit shall begin at the low sides and progress toward the high sides. The speed of the power roller and the tamping roller unit, unless otherwise directed by the Engineer, shall be between 2 and:3 miles per hour. The speed of the pneumatic tire unit, unless otherwise directed by the Engineer, shall be between 4 and 12 miles per hour for asphalt surfacing work and between 2 and 6 miles per hour for all other compaction work. G. Sprinkling: Sprinkling shall be done when ordered by the Engineer. The Contractor shall furnish and operate approved sprinklers, equipped with valves to regulate the flow of water to the sprinkler bar so that water will be evenly distributed over the entire width sprinkled. To provide even distri- bution for smaller applications of water, a spray bar with smaller openings may be provided, or the number and size of openings reduced by plugs or bushings. VII. SUBGRADE. A. Description: Subgrade is that top 6 -inch portion of the roadbed upon which the base material is to be placed. Before commencing preparation of subgrade for placing of base material, all installations within the street to be paved must be completed. B. Construction Methods` After the excavation or embankment has been sub- stantially completed, the subgrade shall be brought to the correct alignment, cross-section, and elevation, so that after reworking and rolling as speci- fied, it will conform to the correct alignment, cross-section, or elevation. All irregularities which develop during final compaction in excess of '2 -inch as shown by straightedge or template, shall immediately be corrected, the subgrade shall be prepared so that when completed, it will have as nearly as practicable (and not less than 95%) a uniform density of 95% Standard Proc- tor Density with uniform moisture not .less than optimum. Densities will be taken every 300 -feet, or as directed by the Engineer.. The prepared subgrade shall be kept thoroughly wetted down sufficiently in advance of placing any base material to insure its being in a firm and moist condition for at least 2 -inches below the finished subgrade surface. Only such subgrade as is necessary for the satisfactory prosecution of the work shall be completed ahead of placing the base material and curb and gutter. Where a two course asphaltic concrete pavement is to be used in lieu of the normal flexible base and surt'ace mix, the subgrade will be processed the with the following exception: If the subgrade has a plastic index of 20 per- cent or more than, it will be necessary to lime, 6 -inches of the subgrade. The rate of application will be 4 lbs. per inch of material in depth or as approved by the engineer. C. Atterburg Limits. The Atterburg Limits shall be determined at 500' intervals or as material changes in the subgrade. - 7 - VIII. LIME TREATMENT FOR SUBGRADE. A. Description: This item shall consist of treating the subgrade by the pulverization, addition of lime, mixing and compacting the mixed materials to the required density. The lime treated sub - grade shall be constructed as herein specified and in conformity with the typical cross-sections shown on the plans. B. Materials: The subgrade to be stabilized shall consist of the material �free from vegetation or other objectionable matter. It is the intention of this specification to utilize material existing on the excavated subgrade. Lime for stabilization shall. be Type "A" hydrated lime. When sampled and tested according to prescribed Texas Highway De- partment procedures, hydrated lime shall conform to the following requirements as to chemical composition: Hydrate. Alkalinity, percent by vje. ght CA (OH) 2. Mini -mum 90.0% Unhydrated lime Content, percent by weight CAO Maximum 5.0% "Free [dater" Content, percent by weight H2O Maximum 4.0%. The percent by weight by residue retained shall conform to the following requirements: Residue retained on a No. 6 sieve, Maximum 0.0% Residue retained on a No. 10 sieve, Maximum 1.0% Residue retained on a No. 30 sieve, Maximum 2.5% Type "A" hydrated lime shall consist of a dry powder obtained by treating quick lime with enough water to satisfy its chemical affinity fol water under the conditions of its hydration. This material shall consist of calcium hydroxide or a mixture of cal- cium hydroxide and a small percentage of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxide. C. Construction Methods: The subgrade shall be brought to line and grade and should be scarified to full 6 -inch depth and partly pulverized tivith a .rooter, grader -scarifier, and/or disc harrow followed by a rotary speed mixer for pulverization. Ren the soil is unusually dry, water shall be added by sprinkling to aid pulver- ization. When the soil is wet the rotary mixer or disc harrow shall be used for aerating and drying out the soil. Lime shall be spread only on that area where the first mixing opera- tions can be completed during the same working day. The lime shall be spread by an approved screw type spreader box or by bag distri- bution at the rates shown on the plans or as directed by the Engineer. The lime shall be distributed at a uniform rate and in such a manner as to reduce the scattering of lime by wind to a minimum. Lime shall not be applied when wind conditions, in the opinion of the Engineer, are such that blowing lime becomes objectionable to traffic and adja- cent property owners. A motor grader shall not be used to spread the lime. - 8 - The material shall be sj,rinkled as directed by the Engineer, until the moisture content has been secured. The subgr.•ade material and lime shall be thoroughly mixers by approved roacl mixers or other apl,roved equipment, and the mixing continued until, in the olsinion of the Engineer, a homogeneous, friable mixture of material and liae:.� is obtained, free from all clods or lumps. Materials containing plastic clays or other material which will not readily mix with lime shall be mixed as thoroughly as l,ossible at the time of the lime application, brought to t'lic proper moisture content and left to cure 24-36 hours as directed by the Eng -i - neer. During the curing period, the :material shall he kelt moist as dirce'-ed. After the required curing time, the subgrade material shall be uniformly rrixcd by approved methods. if the soil binder -lime mixture contains clods, they shall be .reduced in size by raking, blading, discing, harrowing„ scari-fy�_ng;, or by the use of other approved l.ulverization methods so that when all non - flaking aggregates retained on a No. 4, sieve are removed, the remainder of the material shall meet the following requirements when tested dry by >_-atory sieves: Minimum, passing 1-3/4" sieve - 100% Minimum, passing No. 4 sieve - 60% Durcing the interval of time: between applical. ions and mixing, hydrated Z ,,. 1 that has been exl.osed to the open air for a period of six hours, or n::,r .:c cxccssive loss due to washing, or blowing will not be accel.ted . Compaction to 95 density o F the mixture shall begin immediately , C[ ex r, ixing and in no case later 'Oi an three calendar days after final mixi.:gy;, tin-- iess approval. is obtained f_om the Engineer-. The material shall bt- ue.ratncd or sprinkled as necessary to provide the optimum moisture. Compaction {i laeiar at the= bottom ar_d shall continues until the entire depth ofmixtu,-e 1., uniformly compacted in accordance with A.A.S,H.O., Standard Method, A 2-5 day curing period shR11 follow compaction as directed by the Eng;. -n.- - D. F.inishinti, Curing and Preyration for Pavement: Anter the fi.nlil l..i or course of the limo tr ea`t,- d subg;r�ide has been compacted, it shall to the required lines and grades in accordance with the typical soctiun,� . 'i "I completed section shall t --hen be finished by rolling, as directed, ,:i i! 1... u.atic or other suitable roller sufficiently light to prevent hair The coml.,leted section shall be moist cured for a minimum of two (2) fore the further courses are added or any traffic is permitted, unl.eSF, {> . . o,aise directed by the Engineer. L. Tests: All tests required for the completion of lime treatment i`or :,,i grade shall be made by a rel,utablc eomrnerccial testing laboratory, aohich hi','. been approved by the Engineer. The cost of the testing shall be borne 9. Contractor-. Additional tests resulting from the failure of rnixod �;h all be Laid -for by the Contractor. - 9 - IX, Afton final compaction, a field density test shall be made at iint.ervala a V 300 feet:. Intermediate points may be tasted if required by the Engineer and the cost of such intermedicite tests shall be borne by the Contractor. If any density test should indicate that the subgrade does not meet the compaction requirements, the subgrade shall be re -compacted until the required density is obtained. All testing required due to improper compaction shall be paid for by the Contractor. The Atterberg Limits shall be determined at 500 foot intervals or as directed by the Engineer, and the Plasticity index shall be .less than 10. FLEXIBLE BASE (CRUSHED STONE A. Description: This item shall consist of a foundation course for surface course or for other base courses; shall be composed of crusher -run broken stone and shall be constructed as herein specified in one or more courses in conformity with the typical sections shown on the plans. For residential streets with a thirty (30) loot_ roadbed through a thirty --six (36) foot roadbed, the Flexible Base (crushed stone) shall be six (6) inches compacted to 95% density. For thoroughfare streets with over a thrity-six (36) :foot roadbed, the Flex- ible Base (crushed stone) shall be eight (8) inches compacted to 95% density. B.. Materials: The materials shall be crushed stone and shall consist of durable particles of stone mixed with approved binding material. The pro- cessed material shall be a'Type "A", Grade 1 material, and when properly slaked and tested, the flexible base material shall meet the following re- quirements: Retained on 1-3/4 inch sieve 0% Retained on No. 4 sieve 45 to 75% Retained on No. 40 sieve 60 to 85% Material passing the No. 40 sieve shall be known as "Soil Binder" and shall meet the following requirements when prepared in accordance with THD Test Method Tex -101-E procedure: The liquid limit shall not exceed 40 The plasticity index shall. not exceed 10 The percent of wear, as determined by the Los Angeles Abrasion Test of Coarse Aggregate, AASHO Designation T-96, with subsequent revisions, shall not exceed So%, C. Construction Methods: Immediately before placing the base course material., the subgrade shall be checked as to conformity with grade and section. The surface of the subgrade shall not show deviations in excess of one-half (z) inch. - 10 - The material shall be delivered in approved vehicles of a uniform capacity and it shall be the charge of the Contractor that the required amount of specified material shall be delivered to secure the proper thickness of com- pleted base course. Material deposited upon the subgrade shall be spread and shaped the same day unless otherwise directed by the Engineer in writing. In the event inclement weather or other unforeseen circumstances render im- practical the spreading of the material during the first 24-hour period, the material shall be scarified and spread as directed by the Engineer. The ma- terial shall be sprinkled, if directed, and then bladed, dragged and shaped to conform to typical sections shown on the plans. All areas of segregated coarse or fine material shall be corrected or removed and replaced with well graded material, as directed by the Engineer. If additional binder is con- sidered desirable or necessary after the material is spread and shaped, it shall be furnished and applied in the amount directed by the Engineer. Such binder material shall be carefully incorporated with the material in place by scarifying, harrowing, broaming or by other approved methods. The course shall then be sprinkled as required and rolled as directed until a uniform compaction is secured. Through this entire operation, the shape of the course shall be maintained by blading and the surface upon completion shall be smooth and in conformance with the typical sections shown on the plans and to the established lines and grades. The surface on which pavement is to be placed shall not show deviations in Excess of one-fourth ("') in cross sections and in a length of five (5') feet, nor a deviation in excess of one-half (a-,'") inch in sixteen (16T) feet measured longitudinally. Such deviations shall be corrected by loosening, adding or removing material, re -- shaping and recompacting by sprinkling and rolling. All irregularities, de- pressions or weak spots which develop shall be corrected immediately by scar- ifying the areas affected, adding suitable material as required, reshaping and recompacting by sprinkling and rolling. Compaction shall be obtained by blading and rolling with pneumatic roller and finished with a flat wheel roller. Pneumatic tire roller under working con- ditions shall have an effective rolling width of approximately sixty (60") inches and shall be so designated that by ballast loading, the load may be varied uniformly from at least 100 pounds to 325 pounds per inch of width of tire tread. The three -wheel flat wheel roller shall weigh at least ten (10) tons and shall provide a compression on the rear wheels of not less than 325 pounds per linear inch of tire width. The compaction of flexible base shall continue until, the base has been compacted to 95 percent standard density in accordance with AASHO T-99-57. D. Tests: All flexible base proctor, plastic index, and gradation will be taken at 500 foot intervals or as directed by the Engineer. After final compaction, a field density test shall be made at intervals of 300 feet. Intermediate points may be tested if required by the Engineer and the cost of intermediate tests shall be borne by the Contractor. If any den- sity test should indicate that the base material does not meet the compaction requirements, the base material shall be recompacted until the required den- sity is obtained. All testing required due to improper compaction shall be paid for by the Contractor. - 11 -- All tests required in these specifications for the completion of the flex- ible base shall be made by a reputable commercial testing laboratory, which has been approved by the Engineer. X. FLEXIBLE BASE (50-50) A. Description: This shall consist of a foundation course for surface course or for other base courses; shall be composed of 50% crusher -run broken stone and 50% bank run gravel and shall be constructed as herein specified in one or more courses in conformity with the typical sections shown on the plans. For residential streets with a thirty (30) foot roadbed through a thirty- six (36) foot roadbed the Flexible Base (50-50) shall be six (6) inches compacted to 95% density. For thoroughfare streets with over a thirty-six (36) foot roadbed, the Flexible Base (50--50) shall be nine (9) inches compacted to 95% density. B. Materials: The materials shall be crushed stone and bank run gravel and shall consist of durable particles of stone mixed with approved bind- ing material. The material shall be approved by the Engineer at the source. The processed material shall be a Type "A", Grade 1 material, and when properly slaked and tested, the flexible base material shall meet the fol- lowing requirements: Retained on 1-3/4 inch sieve f 0% Retained on No. 4 sieve 45 to 75% Retained on No. 40 sieve 60 to 35% Material passing the No. 40 sieve shell be known. as "Sail Binder" and shall meet the following requirements when prepared in accordance with THD Test Method Tex --101-E procedure: The liquid limit shall not exceed 40 The plasticity index shall not exceed 12 The percent of wear, as determined by the Los Angeles Abrasion Test of Coarse Aggregate. A.A.S.H.O. Designation T-96 with subsequent revisions shall not exceed 50% on the crusher run limestone and shall not exceed 50% on the bank run gravel. C. Compaction: All placing and compaction procedures will be done in accordance with Flexible Base (Crushed Stone) Specifications. D. Testing: All testing shall be done in accordance with Flexible Base (Crushed Stone) Specifications. XI. HOT MIX ASPHALTIC CONCRETE SURFACE COURSE A. Description: Hot mi.: asphaltic concrete surface course shall consist of a pavement as shown on the Mans composed of a compacted mineral aggi-e- gate and asphaltic material_ conforming to the requirements as herein stated under "Materials." Hot mix asphaltic concrete surface, course shall be transported to and constructed on the completed base course in accord- ance with these specifications and in conformity with the lines, grades, and typical cross sections shown on the plans. For residential streets with a thirty (30) foot roadbed through a thirty- six (36) foot roadbed, the hot mix asphaltic concrete surface course shall be a minimum of one and one-half (11-) inches compacted to 94% density and be Type D. For thoroughfare streets with over a thirty-six (36) foot roadbed, the hot mix asphaltic concrete surface course shall be a minimum of two (2) inches compacted to 94% density and be Tyle C. B. Materials: The mineral_aggregate shall be composed of a coarse aggre- gate, a fine aggregate, and, if required, a mineral filler. Samples of coarse aggregate, fine 8ggregate and mineral filler shall be submitted for tests in the quantities required by the Engineer. It shall. contain not more than one (1) percent by weight of organic matter, clays, loam, or pf-bbles coated therewith.. Mineral aggregate from each coarse shall meet -Lhe quality test specified herein. sae combined mineral aggregate, after final processing by the mixing plant, L'nd prior to audition of asphalt and mineral filler, shall have a sand c-lu:i.valent value of not less than 50, when subjected to the sand equivalent t`st as outlined in Texas Highway Department Bulletin C--14. '_ie fine aggregate shall be that part of the aggregate passing the No. 10 s:ievc and shall consist of sand or screenings or a combination of sand and screenings. The plasticity index of that part of the fine aggregate passing tEie No. 40 sieve shall be not more than 6. Sand shall be composed of dur- able stone particles free from injurious foreign matter. Screenings shall be of the same or similar material as specified for coarse aggregate. The coarse aggregate shall be that part of the aggregate retained on a No. 10 sieve; shall consist of clean, crushed, durable fragments of stone, crushed blast furnace slag, crushed gravel, or combinations thereof as hereinafter specified, of uniform quality throughout. Coarse aggregate Will be tested in accordance with THD Bulletin C--11 (Decantation) and ma- terial removed shall not be more than once percent by weight. The coarse aggregate shall have an abrasion of not more than 40 percent loss by weight when subjected to the Los Angeles abrasion test. °13neral filler shall consist of thoroughly dry stone dust, slate dust, portland cement or other mineral dust approved by the Engineer. The min- eral filler shall be free= from foreign and other injurious matter. When tested by the method outlined in THD Bulletin C--14, it shall meet the fol- lowing grading requirements: Percent by Weight Passing a No. 30 sieve 100 Passing a No. 80 sieve, not less than 90 Passing a No. 200 sieve, not less than 65 The asphaltic materials shall be of the grade and type shown on the plans o.. approved by the Engineer and shall meet the following requirements. 13 - O m ; N i C) Ln CO ri I 9 1 1 i I I I �J I t I I cwt i o c1 LJ I I 1 N cq H O p p 1D r -i 1 rw ,r., co N �r ca o o I N rI O O O in I m p 1 I I Ln ,n ca O I O O IU -3 I Zt r -i r -•I Q O O 'ZI I N 1 OLO0 r- I H d H Q O I o I I I gid' n r^i cr, z • Q5 I t i I I I I p p I � ! 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':U E� O 'U •rl •r•I A r-1 F4 �-1 r- i • • iJ-+ pp is 10-0r--i Dr-I E • r1 �. -H .,J 4--, 4.J 4 -'•r -I W •r- ai r -I F-1 a, o -i U A 4-J Cly ul U O U) 43 O' QJ J--' E w -HaJ O d -J •1-J m •!-J N f~ G u `_.a u m • 4 ;-,, � ° s~ rl V ,n O o U) 123 v u a r O = v :n o "H v PL. c14 Q, Ca t-4 a s� cr, cr w E -r - 14 - •c C. Paving Mixtures: The raving mixtures shall consist of a uniform mixture of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and asphaltic material. The grading of each constituent of the mineral aggregate shall be such as to produce, when properly proportioned, a mixture, which, when tested in accordance with THD Bulletin C-14, will conform to the limitations for master grading given below for the type specified. Crushed stone, crushed gravel, or pea gravel may be used in the Type "B" binder course and Type "D" surface course. BINDER COURSE TYPE "B" CRUSHED STONE OR PEA GRAVEL PER CENT 5/8 100% PASSING RETAINED ON PER CENT l;, -inch screen 97 to 100% 1, -inch screen 1/2 97 to 100% 1 -inch screen -inch screen 20 to 50% ,-inch screen t -:inch screen 15 to 40,% -,-inch screen No. 10 mesh sieve 5 to 25°0 No. 10 mesh screen 10 mesh 55 to 70% No. 10 mesh sieve No. 40 mash sieve 5 to 20% No. 40 mesh sieve No. 80 mesh sieve 5 to 20% No. 80 mesh sieve No. 200 mesh sieve 5 to 20% No. 200 mesh sieve No. 1 to 10% The asphaltic material shall _Corm from 4 per cent to 7 per cent of the mix- ture by weigh:. 1 to 10% SURFACE COURSE TYPE "C" CRUSHED STONE 3.5 to 7% of the mixture by PASSING RETAINED ON PER CENT 1 inch screen PASSING RETAINED ON PER CENT 5/8 100% 3/4 inch screen 100% 97 to 100 3/4 inch screen 1/2 inch screen 15 to 40% 1/2 inch screen 1/4 inch screen 15 to 40% 1/4 inch screen No. 10 mesh sieve 10 to 30% Total. Retain on No. 10 mesh sieve 50 to 60% 10 mesh sieve No. 40 mesh sieve 0 to 25% 40 mesh sieve No. 80 mesh sieve S to 25% 80 mesh sieve No. 200 mesh sieve. 5 to 25% 200 1 to 10% The asphaltic material shall form From 3.5 to 7% of the mixture by weight. SURFACE COURSE TYPE, "D" CRUSHED STONE OR PEA GRAVEL The asphaltic material shall form from 4 to 7 per cent of the mixture by weight. PASSING RETAINED ON PER CENT 5/8 inch screen 100% 1/2 inch screen 97 to 100/ 1/2 inch screen 1/4 inch screen 25 to 50% 1/4 inch screen No. 10 mesh sieve 15 to 35% No. 10 mesh sieve 50 to 60% No. 1_0 mesh sieve No. 40 mesh sieve 0 to 25% No. 40 mesh sieve No. 80 mesh sieve 5 to 25/ No. 80 mesh sieve No. 200 mesh sieve 5 to 25% No. 200 mesh sieve 2 to 10% The asphaltic material shall form from 4 to 7 per cent of the mixture by weight. D. Tack Coat - OA -90: All surfaces of curbs, gutters, headers, manholes, valve boxes, etc., that will be in contact with the asphaltic concrete mixture, shall be given a thin uniform coating of tack coat. The Contractor shall use caution to protect the curb and gutter during placement of the tack coat. E. Prime Coat - MC -1: Before the application of the surface material is begun, the base will be broomed and cleaned to the satisfaction of the City Engineer. After the cleaning procedure is completed, a prime coat will be applied to the flexible base at the rate of 0.10 to 0.25 per square yard. F. Construction Methods: The prime coat, tack coat or asphaltic mixture when place with a spreading and finishing machine, shall not be placed when the air temperature is below 50 degrees and is falling but it may be placed when the air temperature is above 40 degrees F. and is rising. The asphaltic mixture when placed with a motor grader, shall not be placed when the air temperature is be- low 60 degrees F. and is falling, but may be placed when the air temperature is above 50 degrees F. and is rising. The air temperature shall be taken in the shade away from artificial heat. It is further provided that the prime coat, tack or other asphaltic mixture shall be placed only when the humidity, general weather conditions and the moisture and temperature of the base, in the opinion of the Engineer, are suitable. G. Transporting Asphaltic ,Concrete: The asphaltic mixture, prepared as speci- fied above, shall be hauled to the work in tight vehicles previously cleaned of all foreign material. The dispatching of the vehicles shall be arranged so that all material delivered may be placed, and all rolling shall be completed during daylight hours. In cool weather or for long hauls, canvas covers and insulating of the truck bodies may be required. The inside of the truck body may be given a light coating of oil, if necessary, to prevent mixture from adhering to the body. H. Placing: Generally the asphaltic mixture shall be dumped and spread on the approved prepared surface with the specified spreading and finishing machine in such manner that when properly compacted the finished pavement will be smooth, of uniform density and will meet'the requirements of the typical cross sections and the surface tests. During the application of asphaltic material, care shall be taken to prevent splattering of adjacent pavement, curb and gutter, and structures. The placing of the mixture shall be as nearly continuous as possible, and the rol- ler shall pass over the unprotected edge of the freshly laid mixture only when the laying is discontinued for such length of time as will permit chilling or cooling the mixture. In every case when -resuming the work, the transverse joint shall be cut vertically for the full depth of the course; the material cut away shall be im- mediately removed from the site of the work, and the fresh mixture shall be laid against the fresh cut. Hoff smoothing irons may be used for sealing joints, but extreme care shall be used to avoid burning the surface. Construction joints shall be either parallel to or at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the work. The joints shall. be spaced so that the joint in one course will not coincide with that of another course and will lap at least one root. The Contractor will use caution during the rolling operation to protect the curb and gutter. - 16 - I. Compacting: The pavement shall be compressed thoroughly and uniformly and when tested in accordance with the THD Bulletin C--14 shall meet the fol- lowing requirements: Laboratory ;Density (THD Bulletin C-14) Minimum 94 percent Maximum 99 percent Optimum 97 percent stability (THD Bulletin -C-14) Not less than 30 percent, except when otherwise shown on the plans. J. Surface Tests and Pavement Thickness: The surface of the pavement, after compression, shall be smooth and true to the established line, grade and cross section, and when tested with a 16 -foot straightedge placed parallel to the centerline of the roadway, it shall have no deviation in excess of 1/16 inch per foot :from the nearest point of contact. The maximum ordinate measured from the face of the straightedge shall not exceed 1/4 inch at any point. Any point in the surface not meeting these requirements shall be immediately corrected. Areas of asphaltic concrete pavement which have been determined to be different in thickness by an amount greater than 1/4 inch will not be accepted. Addi- tional cores required in deficient areas shall be made at the expense of the Contractor. K. Manholes: The paving contractor shall see that all valve boxes, manholes, clean-outs,—etc., are set to the proper grade and shall carefully finish the pavement to them. Any such boxes or covers damaged by the Contractor shall be repaired by him before paving, and he shall direct the Engineer's atten- tion to any he finds faulty. L. Tests: All tests as required will be performed by a laboratory approved by the City at no cost to the City. The results of the tests will be mailed directly to the City. The contractor will submit to the testing laboratory whatever materials are necessary for the tests. The testing laboratory will design the mixture in accordance with these specifications and -furnish the results to the City. The approved laboratory will furnish plant control which shall include but not be limited to bin analysis, extractions and gradations, and Hveem stability. The approved laboratory shall also conduct field density tests on the com- pleted mixture. The laboratory will, during construction, and after construction make the fallowing number of daily tests and report results to the Engineer, and the Contractor. - 17 - 1. One sample (three test specimens) for determination of density and stability. 2. One sample for determination of Proportioning of materials. �. There will be test specimens taken every 300 linear feet to determine the thickness and density of the asphalt pavement after Laving is completed as directed by the Engineer. M. Asphalt Valleys: All asphalt valleys will be six -inches in depth and eight feet in width with the following provisions: The first 4•ry inches of hot mix will be Type ""B" and the remain- ing 1L inches will be Type "D" Surface Course. XII. TSO COURSE ASMALTIC CONCRFTI, PAMIENT - (PLANT MIXED) A. Description: This item shall consist of a four (4) inch base course and a two 2 inch surface course composed of mineral aggregate and oil asphalt mixed in a central plant, constructed on a prepared subgrade in accordance with these specifications and.in conformity with the lines, grades and typi- cal cross-sections as shown on the accepted drawings. B. Materials: Mineral aggregate shall consist of fine aggregate, coarse aggre_ 9,ItO and mineral filler. The material passing the 410 sieve shall be considered fine aggregate, and shall coszsist of stone screenings, sand, or a combination of each. Sand :.,hall be composed of sound durable particles, free from loam or other inju- rious matter.. The linear shrinkage shall not exceed 2.0%. Stone screen- ing; shall be produced from crushed limestone, similar to material as speci- fied for coarse aggregate. The plasticity index of the fine aggregate pass- ing the #40 sieve shall not exceed 6.0. The material retained on the X10 mesh sieve shall be considered as coarse aggregate and shall consist of clean, tough, durable fragments of crushed stone, for the wearing surface course. Crushed stone, crushed gravel or un- crushed gravel may be used in the base course. This material shall be sub- stantially free from dirt, organic or other injurious matter occurring free or as a coating on the aggregate. material removed by decantation shall not exceed 2.0%. The Los Angeles Abrasion shall not exceed 40%. Bituminous material shall conform with the current Federal Specifications for following grades: AP -1 Penetration 120-150 AP -3 Penetration 55-100 or AASHO-M--20-54 - Same Penetration Grade C. Gradation: The asphaltic concrete mixture shall consist of a uniform mi:kure of coarse and fine aggregate and asphaltic cement. The grading shall have the following limits: Base Course: Passing 21" Screen Passing 2" Screen Passing 2" Screen, retained on 1" Screen Passing 1" Screen, retained on 1s Screen Passing" Screen, retained on q" Screen Passing I`T Screen, retained on #10 Se._ve Total retained oa #10 Sieve Passing #10 Sieve, retained on #40 Sieve Passing #40 Sieve, retained on ##80 Sieve Passing $#80 Sieve, retained on $#200 Sieve Passing 4200 Sieve 100.0% 97-100% 15-40 15-40 10-25 5-20 65-80 0--15 3--15 3--15 1-10 The Asphaltic material shall form from 4 to 7% of the mixture by weight. Surface Course: The surface will be of Type "D" Crushed Stone as specified under "Hot Mix Asphaltic Concrete Surface Course". D. Spreading and Finishing: Each course shall be spread and finished as follows: The bituminous base mixture shall be spread and finished immed- 'ately after the subgrade has been properly shaped and cleaned. T'.le bituminous mixture shall be delivered on the job at a temperature of not less than 2751) F. Whenever practical the mixture shall be spread by means of an approved mechanical self -powered paver, capable of spreading the mix- ture true to the line and grade and crown as shown on the accepted plans and cross --sections. Placing of the mixture shall be as continuous as possible and the roller shall pass over the unprotected edge of the fresh laid mixture only when the laying of the course is to be discontinued for such length of time as to per- mit the mixture to become chilled. Longitudinal and transversejoints shall be well bonded and sealed. If necessary to obtain this result the joints shall be cut back to the full depth of the previously laid course, painted with RC -2 asphalt. Before placing the mixture against them, all contract surfaces of curbs, gutters, headers, manholes., etc., shall be painted with a thin uniform coating of RC -2 asphalt or asphalt cement dissolved in naptha. E. Compaction: After spreading, the mixture shall be thoroughly compacted by a tandem power driven roller, weighing not less than -ten (10) tons, as soon after being spread as it will bear the roller without undue displace- ment. Rolling shall start longitudinally at the sides and proceed toward the center of the pavementoverlapping on successive trips by at least one- half the width of.the wheel. The pavement shall be rolled diagonally in two directions with a tandem roller, weighing not less than ten (10) tons, the second diagonal rolling shall cross the lines of the first. Pneumatic rol- lcro shall be used for final rolling, satisfactory to the Engineer. - 19 - XIII Along curbs, headers, manholes and similar structures and at all places not accessible to the roller, thorough compaction must be secured by means of hot tampers and at all contacts of this character the joints between these structures and the surface mixture must.be effectively sealed. All testing will be in accordance with Item "Hot Mix Asphaltic Concrete Surface Course." F. Seasonal Limits: No asphalt material shall be laid when the temper- ature of the air is 50- F. and falling or during unfavorable weather conditions, or as directed by the Engineer. It may be placed when the air temperature is 40 and will rise to 500 F. or more. REINFORCED PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT A. Description: This item shall consist of five (5) inches of a Portland cement concrete pavement constructed on a prepared subgrade in accordance with these specifications and in conformity with the lines and grades and typical cross-sections as shown on the accepted drawings. D. Haterials: Aggregates - shall be secured from approved sources. Cr:Dding and quality shall comply with AASHO M-6-51 and M-80-51. (Soundness -!ay he waived if approved by the engineer.) Coarse aggregate graded from +o #4 sieve. ,':.ger shall_ be free from oil, acids, alkali and vegetable matter shall be i:oasonably clean. Concrete shall contain not less than 5.0 sacks per cubic yard, and shall be p._oportioned on the basis of the water cement ratio in accordance with the American Concrete Institute. The maximum slump shall be 3.5 inches. Concrete test beams, center leading, shall not be less than 600 pounds per square inch in 28 days. The contractor shall furnish test results of at least two test beams each 500 lineal, feet of pavement. C. Construction Methods: All boulders, organic material, soft clay, spongy material, and any other objectionable material shall be removed and replaced xvith approved material. The subgrade shall be properly shaper, rolled and uniformly comparted to conform with the accepted cross-sections and grades to 9S% of Standard Proctor. At least two test results will be :furnished by the contractor for each block to be paved. Forms for Concrete Paving: Forms for pavement slabs shall be of metal ctild shall have a minimum length of ten (1.0) feet except that on sharp curves mood forms may be used. All forms shall be free from bends and warps and c'.iall be set so that they rest firmly throughout their entire length on the subgrade and shall be joined neatly and tightly together. forms shall nct vary more than one-eighth (1/8) inch from line anti grade braced :in such a runner that they will remain true to line and grade under they pressure of t:ie concrete Land the impact of the finishing machine- screed. All forms shall be oiled before placing concrete. - 20 - Placing Reinforcement: Reinforcing metal shall be ktpt clean and free from rust, straight and free from distortion. Steel fabric reinforcement of the design and weight indicated on the plans shall be laid in strips transversely with the roadway. It shall extend to within two (2) inches of the ends and sides of slabs. Adjacent sheets of fabric shall be lapped not less than nine (9) inches where the lap is made at right angles to the center line of the pavement. The reinforcement fabric shall be placed when sufficient con- crete has been poured, to _reach the elevation of the fabric as shown on the plans. Placing and Finishing Concrete: Concrete shill be placed on a moist subgrade. Concrete mixed to the proper consistency shall be deposited on the prepared subgrade rapidly in successive batches by means of a discharging device and In a manner which will not cause separation in the mix and shall be distributed to the required depth and for the entire width of the pavement by shoveling or other approved methods. Rakes shall not be used in handling concrete. Concrete adjacent to joints shall be deposited on the subgrade as near to the joints as possible without touching them. It shall then be shoveled against both sides of the joint simultaneously maintaining equal pressure on both sides. After placing the concrete shall be leveled and immediately struck off by means of an approved transverse mechanical Finishing machine or by approved hand Methods by using a steel screed weighing not less than four. hundred (4.00) pounds and having a face resting on the forms oC- not less than ten (10) inches in width. The template shall be shaped to the cross-section and have sufficient strength to retain its shape under working conditions. The template shall be moved forward with a cambined longitu-- einal and crosswise motion. If necessary, the template shall be used a second .time or until a true surface is obtained. All concrete adjacent to forms or ot:ier surfaces shall be thoroughly spaded so as to bring sufficient mortar to the face of the surfaces to eliminate honey combing. lifter the concrete has been screeded, it shall be finished as follows: `rhe concrete shall be floated with a wooden transverse float and the float shall be moved :forward with a combined longitudinal and crosswise motion. The float shall be used until all free water has been removed and the surface presents a smooth appearance. After floating with the transverse wooden float the concrete shall then be finished with sixteen (16) foot longitudinal float or by an approved mechanical longitudinal float. The desired finish may be put on the concrete by means of a hand belt, burlap or other approved methods. The outer edge of the concrete shall be tool rounded. Before the final finishing the concrete shall, be tested with a sixteen (16) foot straight edge, .laid parallel to the edge of the pavement so as to bridge any depression. Any irregularities exceeding one-eighth (1f8) of an inch shall be corrected. Expansion, contraction and longitudinal joints: Place in accordance with approved plans. - 21 - XIV. C,zring Concrete: Imtediately after finishing operations have been completed t�? entire surface of the newly laid concrete shall be covered and cured by one of the following�.methods: Cotton or jute mats, curing paper, wetted Earth or other apprWed methods for curing concrete. The curing of concrete shall continue for A period of at least three (3) days or longer if necessary. Pulling Forms: A*er.the concrete has set and attained sufficient strength the forms shall �e pulled. All honeycombs exposed by pulling the forms shall be patc)+,.A with a cement mortar, Backfilling: Yackfili shall be of suitable material and shall be placed and tamped until is is. :Firm and solid. Backfilling shall 'follow immediately after the concrete !orms have been removed. Seasonal Lig�ts: No, concrete shall be poured on a frozen or thawing subgrade or during.,-uniavorable weather conditions, or when the -temperature is 380 and falling: CONC'4.r3'£ STRUCTURES. A. lescription, This item shall_ consist of the construction of concrete strictures and other incidental work. ii Materials: The cement used shall conform to the following specifications: F',rtland Cement, A.S.T.M, Designation C-150 or later revisions thereof, and -iiall be Type 1 or Type III. ,oncr_ete aggregates shall consist of natural, washed and screened sand, and -77shed and screened gravel or clean crushed stone conforming to Standard i3ications for Concrete, Aggregates, A.S.T.M. Serial Designation C-33-39 )2 7 at,_,r revisions thereof. nmcoirit ()C do1c:!ter.ious substance shall not exceed the following: Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate C1 ay Lumps 1.001. 0,25% Soft Fragments - 4.00 Coal and Lign.ito 0.75 0.7S Material finer titan 200 mesh sieve 3.00 1,00 All other deleterious substances 2.00 2.00 All fine aggregate shall be free from injurious amounts or organic impurities and when subjected to the colorimetric test for organic impurities and found to be darker than the standard, will be rejected. Aggregates shall_ be well graded from coarse to fine and when tested by labo- ratory sieves shall conform to the following requirements: Fine Aggregates Coarse Aggregates Passing An Sieve - 100% Passing 1" Sieve - 90-100 ;Ing 7,' Sieve - 25-60 _'::sing 3/81, Sieve 10CI% - _' '.csing No. 4 sieve 95-100 0-10 - 22 - Passing No, 16 sieve Passing No. 50 sieve Passing No. 100 sieve Passing No. 200 Mesh not more than Fine Aggregates Coarse Aggregates 45-80 - 10-30 - 5-15 - 3% 1/ The maximum size of coarse aggregate shall be limited to 3/4 of the minimum clear space between reinforcing; bars and not larger than one --fifth of the narrowest; dimensions between forms of the member for which the concrete is to be used. C. Reinforcing Steel: All reinforci.ng steel shall meet the Specifications for New Billet Steel., A.S,T.M. Designation A15-30 or later revisions thereof or Rail Steel Concrete Reinforcement Bars A.S.T.K. Designation A16-35 or later revisions thereof. Deformation of reinforcing steel shall meet the requirements of A.S.T.M, Specification A--305-50. D. Water: Water for concrete shall be clean and free from alkali or other harmful impurities. The mixer is to be equipped with a suitable water mea- suring device so that the predetermined quantity of water may be measured and a uniform amount used per batch. E. Concrete - Structural: Concrete shall be composed of fine and coarse aggregate, so graded and proportioned, and thoroughly mixed with the re- quired cement and water, as will produce a homogeneous mixture of such qual- ity that the concrete will conform to the design and test requirements of this specification. Fine and coarse aggregate shall be separately and accurately measured by weight only when structural concrete is being poured unless otherwise di- rected by the Engineer. Volume measurement may be used by lower grade concrete to be used for blocking and cradle. F. Desi n and Testing_ The concrete mix will be designed by the approved testing laboratory with the intention of producing a structural concrete of 3000 pounds per square inch strength in 28 days. This strength shall be checked during construe -Lion by taking a minimum of two (2) test cylinders during each pour or a minimum of two (2) test cylinders during each twenty- five (25) cubic yards of continuous pouring. A compressive test at seven days, and one test at 28 days. These tests shall be conducted by an ap- proved testing laboratory and the cost of these tests is to be borne by the Contractor. The following limits of slumps shall be used for control of the design and placing of concrete: SLUMP IN INCHES Foundations and slabs on the ground 1 to 3 inches Heavy slabs, beams and walls 3 to 6 inches Thin walls 3 to 6 inches All expense for the design of the concrete mixture and the testing of the cylinders taken during construction will be borne by the Contractor, - 23 - G. Mixing;: Concrete shall be composed of Portland Cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, and water mixed in. proportions designated by an approved private testing laboratory and in conformity with these specifications in order to produce a concrete of the specified strengths and workability. The laboratory will base their proportions on laboratory investigations of the proposed materials to be used throughout the job. In no case shall the mixing time be less than one minute. H. Excavation: Excavation shall be done in a workmanlike manner so as . not to interfere with or damage any other structure near the one for which the excavation is being made. Grading shall. be true to slopes shown on plans and as set down under the item Structural Excavation, 1. Pumping, Bailing and Draining: The Contractor shall immediately re- move all surface or seepage water which may accumulate during the excavation and construction work, by providing the necessary underdrains or otherwise, and by doing the necessary pumping, bailing or draining. The Contractor shall have available at all times sufficient equipment in proper working order for doing the work. All water removed from the excavation shall be disposed of in an approved manner, so as not to create unsanitary conditions, cause injury to persons or property, damage to the work in progress, not to interfere unduly with the progress of the work. J. Backfill: All backfill around box culverts, bridge backwalls, retaining walls, wings., manholes, and etc., that will be in the roadway or within three feet of the back of curb will be of granular material. Granular material shall be sand or mixed sand ,and gravel free from lumps, large stones, clay, and organic materials. The granular material will be jetted, and will not form mud or. mull. Any variation of this specification will have to have the permission of the Engineer. The backfill shall be brought to within one foot of the subgrade, and the remaining will be placed in accordance with the Embankment Specifications. No backfill shall be placed against any abutment or retaining wall or box culvert until such structure has been in place for at least 7 days. Back- fill placed around abutments and piers shall be deposited on both sides to approximately the same elevation at the same time. K. -Forms: Forms may be of metal or wood or a combination of the two and shall �be .designed and built true to line, dimension and elevation; they shall be rigidly braced and unyielding, and shall be so constructed that they may be removed without injuring the concrete. if required by the Engi-. neer, the Contractor shall submit detailed plans of the form work proposed to be used. if such plans appear inadequate, the Engineer will recommend to the Contractor such changes as he deems necessary. The Engineer's con- currence shall in no way relieve the Contractor of his entire responsibility for obtaining satisfactory results or of his responsibility for any and all damages or injury resulting from the use of such forming plans. All -form lumber shall be uniformly strong and sound, and for all interior -and exposed surfaces shall be surfaced both sides and both edges and a - 24 - uniform thickness. Plywood or iron or steel plates on undressed lumber for the backing will be permitted. undressed lumber may be used for backing and for other unexposed surfaces. Inside forms for all concrete shall be of plywood, iron or steel plates on undressed lumber or steel sections for the backing, All bolts or rivets heads on the side next to the concrete shall be countersunk. All forms shall be mortar tight, and when necessary to close cracks in timber forms, they shall be soaked with water. Provisions shall be made for preventing the adhesion of mortar to the forms by adequately coating the surface with approved grease or oil, by soaping or by wetting with water immediately before placing concrete. The interior surface of all forms shall be clean, smooth and tight, and in such condition that the required concrete surface will be obtained. Cham- fers and fillets shall be as directed by the Engineer. Forms used more than one time shall be free from warps or bulges, and shall have any damaged place properly repaired and shall be clean. Immediately preceding the plac- ing of concrete, any dirt, shavings, sawdust, chips, water or other foreign substance shall be removed from the forms and the Contractor shall inspect the forms for accuracy and correctness. No wooden spreaders or other de- vices shall be left in the forms. Should the forms show any yielding, bulging, spreading, or otherwise become displaced from correct alignment or position during the placing of concrete, or after, they shall immediately and satisfactorily be corrected by adjustment or bracing, or when required by the Engineer shall be removed in part of in their entirety and be re- built. L. Transporting and Placing Concrete. the Engineer is present and until the inspected and approved. Concrete shall not be placed unless forms, reinforcement, etc., have been Concrete shall be handled to the place of final deposit in a manner to avoid segregation, separation or loss of the ingredients, or the displacement of the reinforcement. The arrangement and use of chutes, when necessary, shall ex- tend as near as possible to the final place of deposit of the concrete. Dropping of concrete a greater distance than 5 feet, or depositing a large quantity of concrete at one point and flowing or working it along the forms will not be permitted. PlacinLr concrete shall be so regulated that undue pressure will not be ex- erted against the forms. The concrete shall be consolidated into a dense mass, and mortar shall be f1ushed to the surface of the forms by continuous tamping, vibrator, spading and slicing. Care shall be taken to fill each part of the forms.by depositing concrete directly as near its final location as practicable to work the coarse aggregates back from the surface, and to work the concrete under and around the reinforcement bars without displacing them. After the concrete has taker its initial set, care shall be taken to avoid jarring or placing any strain on the projecting ends of reinforcing -bars. 25 Concrete shall be placed in continuous horizontal layers not exceeding 12 inches in thickness, unless otherwise permitted by the Engineer. The batches of concrete in any layer and the layers of concrete in any struc- ture or section of structure being concreted shall follow each other so closely that each batch or layer will be placed and consolidated before the concrete previously placed has taken its initial set. Each layer of concrete shall be left somewhat rough in order to secure =..�. thorough bonding with the next layer above. The top surface of layers com- pleting the day's work, or placed just prior to temporarily discontinuing operations, shall be left in such condition to prevent the formation of laitance. The entire operation of depositing, consolidating and compacting concrete shall be so conducted that the exposed surfaces will be of smooth and uniform texture. M. Construction Joints: Construction joints shall be placed at the lo- cations shown on the plans, and concrete shall be poured in one continuous operation between such construction joints; however, where work is unavoid- ably suspended between regularly planned construction joint locations be- fore the concrete shall have taken its initial set, then a construction joint located and formed in a manner satisfactory to the Engineer shall be placed. Keys of the depth and width shown on the plans shall be formed by imbedding water soaked wooden strips in the soft concrete and removing them after the concrete has hardened. When keys for joints not shown on the plans are required, they shall not be leveled off, but shall be left somewhat rough. Forms which have spread away from the concrete already in place shall be drawn back tightly against the concrete before placing fresh con- crete. Upon resuming concreting, the surface of the concrete previously placed shall be thoroughly cleaned of all dirt, scum, laitance or other inert materials, using a stiff wire brush, or by other means approved by the Engineer. Immediately preceding the placing of fresh concrete, the surface of the concrete previously placed shall be thoroughly washed with clean water and covered with a substantial coating of cement mortar of the same mixture used in the concrete. All measures necessary shall be taken by the Contractor to secure a good bond in the concrete at construction joints. N. Placing Co*:rete: All, concrete not placed as herein specified within 30 minute.2 after Mixing clhall be rejected and shall be disposed of by the Contractor. Except upon specific written authorization by the Engineer, concrete shall not be placed when the temperature is below 40 degrees F. and falling; but it may be placed when the temperature is above -35 degrees F. and riEJ_ng, the tomperature being taken in the shade and away from arti- ficial hear o�: as directed by the Engineer. 0. Removal of Forms: Forms shall not be removed without the approval of the Engineer, and such removal shall be carried out in a manner to insure the complete safety of the structure. In general, forms for the several classes of work'aisted herein below shall remain in place, after the con- crete has been placed, until the concrete has attained the following com- pressive strengtb in pounds per square inch: Bottom Forms of Concrete Slabs Twelve hundred Pounds Side Formh of Wall, Beams & Girders Eight Hundred Pounds The Contractor shall be responsible for all damage caused by the removal of forms. - 2u -- P. Curing Concrete: Careful attention shall be given to the proper curing of all concrete. The Contractor shall inform the Engineer fully as to the methods and procedures proposed for curing; shall provide the proper equip- ment and material in adequate amounts; and shall have approval of the meth- ods, equipment and material proposed prior to placing concrete. Inadequate curing facilities or lack of attention to ttLe proper curing of - concrete, shall be cause for the Engineer to stop all construction on the job, until approved.curing is provided. All concrete shall he cured for a period of 4 curing days. A curing day is defined as a calendar day on which the temperature, taken in the shade away from artificial heat is above 500 F. for at least 19 hours. The following methods are permitted for curing concrete: 1. Form Curing 2. Slater Curing a. Wet material b. Water spray c. Ponding 3. Membrane curing Q. Surface Finish: Each and every part of the concrete work shall be care- fully, thoroughly and neatly finished. Immediately after removal of forms, all surfaces, whether or not they will be exposed, shall have all honeycombed areas cut out and replaced or pointed up as required by the Engineer. All rough spots and holes shall be carefully pointed up with cement mortar of the same mixture as that used in the concrete. All bolts, wires or other devices used to hold the forms�in place, and which pass through or protrude from the concrete, shall be cut off flush with the concrete surface, and on the surface to be exposed, the wire shall then be driven back one (111) inch from the surface and shall be pointed over with mortar as described above. All concrete surfaces which shall be exposed upon completion of the project shall be finished with a carborundum stone, and prior to final acceptance it will be refinished as required by the Engineer. R. Reinforcement: This work consists of metal reinforcement of the type, shape, size and grade required, furnished and placed as specified herein and as shown on the plans. Reinforcement bars preferably shall be cut and bent in the shop before de- livering to the work. Cutting and bending in the field shall be done with the utmost care; all field bending shall be done cold. Reinforcement bar laps shall be as shoini on the plans, and where not shown they shall equal 30 times the bar diameter; hooks and bends shall be made as shown on the plans, and where dimension of hooks is not shown, the dia- meter of the hooks shall equal 6 times the bar diameter. - 27 Men placed in the work, reinforcement shall be free from dirt, mill scale, dust, grease, oil or other foreign matter. The reinforcement shall be sup- ported and tied in place, using approved methods so that it will not become displaced during the placing and compacting of concrete. The placing of parallel bars shall not be less than 3 bar diameters, center to center, with a minimum clearance between bars of 2 inches and the distance from the cen- ter of bars to surface of concrete shall not be less than 2 bar diameters with a minimum clear covering of one inch, unless otherwise shown on the plans. Bars in footing shall have a minimum clear cover of 21, inches, un- less otherwise shown on the plans. The placing and securing of reinforce- ment in any section of the work shall be approved by the Engineer before any concrete is deposited in the section. In the event of any displacement of reinforcement from its proper position during the concreting operation or from any cause whatsoever, it shall be immediately replaced and secured to its original position, All reinforcement shall be furnished in the full lengths indicated on the plans. No splicing of bars, except where shown on the plans, shall be done without approval by the Engineer; splices shall not be less than 30 bar diameters in length and shall be placed at a section which will provide a minimum distance of 2 inches between the splices and the nearest adjacent bar on the.surface of the concrete; no splices will be permitted at points where the section is not sufficient to provide the min- imum clearance herein required. No substitution of reinforcement shall be made except upon written permission of the Engineer. X7. REINFORCER CONCRETE PIPE A. Description: 'These specifications shall govern for the furnishing and placing of reinforced concrete pipe. The pipe shall be installed in accord- ance with the requirements.of these specifications, to the line and grades shown on the plans, and shall be of the classes, sizes, and dimensions shown thereon: The installation of pipe shall include all joints or connections to new or existing pipes, manholes, catch basins, headwalls, etc., as may be required to complete the wort:. B. Materials: Materials, manufacture, and design of pipes shall be as pre- scribed in the current standard specifications for "Reinforced Concrete Cul- vert, Storm Drain and Sewer Pipe," ASPI Designation C -76-57T and in the additional provisions contained herein. All pipe shall be machine made. Pipe shall be substantially free from :fractures, large or deep cracks, lanunations, and surface roughness. The planes of the ends of the pipe shall be perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. The ends of the pipe shall be of such design that when laid, the pipe sections will form a con- tinuous conduit with a smooth and uniform interior surface. The following shall be clearly stencilled on the pipe: a. The pipe class. b. The elate of manufacture. C. The name or trade --marls of the manufacturer. d. Elliptical pipe with circular reinforcing and circular pipe with elliptical reinforcing shall have the word "top„ - 28 - or "bottom" placed on the inside of the pipe at the correct place to indicate the proper position when laid. e. Inspector's identification mark. The pipe shall be subject to rejection because of failure to meet any of the specification requirements or any of the following conditions: 1. Fractures or cracks passing through the shell, except that a single end crack that does not exceed the depth of the joint shall not be cause for rejection. If a single end crack that does not exceed the depth of the joint exists in more than 10 per cent of the pipe, how- ever, the defective pipe shall be rejected. 2. Defects which indicate imperfect placing, mixing and curing of the concrete. 3. Spalls deeper than one -halm the depth of the joint or extending more than 4 inches around the circumference. If spalls not deeper than one-half of the depth of the Joint or extending nor more than 4 inches around the circumference exist in more than 10 per cent of the pipe, however, the defective pipe shall be rejected. 4. Exposure of the reinforcement when such exposure would indicate that the reinforcement is misplaced. S. The complete absence of distinct web --lake markings, which is indicative of a possible deficiency of water in the concrete mix, from the external surface of the pipe made by any process in which the forms are removed immediately after the concrete has been placed. All rejected pipes shall be plainly marked by the Engineer and shall be replaced by the Contractor with pipes which meet the requirements of these specifications. Such rejected pipes shall be immediately removed from the site of the work. C. Pipe Excavation: All excavation shall be in accordance with the re- quirements of Sections IV and V. Mien pipes are laid in a trench, the trench when completed and shaped to receive the pipe, shall be of suffi- cient width to provide free working space for satisfactory bedding and jointing and thorough tamping of the backfill and bedding material under and around the pipe. The Contractor shall make such temporary provision as may he necessary to insure adequate drainage of the trench and bedding during the construction operation. The pipe shall be bedded in a :foundation of granular material. The ma- terial shall be sand or mixed sand and gravel free from lumps, large stones, clay, etc. The granular material shall have a thickness of 3 inches under the pipe. Where rock, in either .ledge or boulder formation is encountered it shall be removed below grade and replaced with suitable materials in such manner as to provide a compacted earth cushion having a thickness under the pipe of not less than one --half inch per foot height of fill over the top of - 29 - the pipe, with the minimum allowable thickness of eight inches. Where the soil encountered at the established grade is a quicksand, much., or similar unstable material, unless other special construction methods are called for on the plans or in special provisions, such unstable soil shall be removed and replaced in accordance with the requirements of Section TV. D. Laying Pipe: Unless otherwise authorized by the Engineer, the laying of pipes on the prepared foundation shall be started at the outlet and with the spigot or tongue ends pointing in.the direction. of flow and shall pro- ceed toward the inlet end with the abutting sections properly matched, true to the established lines and grades. Proper facilities shall be provided for hoisting and lowering the section of pipe into the trench without dis- turbing the prepared foundation and the sides of the trench. The ends of the pipes shall be carefully cleaned before the pipes are placed. As each length of pipe is laid, the mouth of the pipe shall be protected to prevent the entrance of earth or bedding material. The pipes shall be fitted and matched so that when laid in the bed they shall form a smooth uniform con- duit. When elliptical pipe with circular reinforcing or circular pipe with elliptical reinforcing is used, the pipe shall be laid in the trench in such a mannek that the markings "top'' or 'bottom=', as prescribed in Subsection B above, will be.in correct position. Multiple installations of reinforced concrete pipe shall be laid with the center lines of individual barrels parallel. When not otherwise indicated on plans, the following clear distances between outer surface of adjacent pipes shall be maintained: Diameter of Pipe Clear Distance Between Pi es 18" Of - 9'.1 24" 0 T _ ills 30TT 11 - lit 361T 1T _ 311 42" 11 _ sit 481T it - lit 54" 11 . - 11l' 6011 to 84i' 21 - 0' 1 Diameter of Pipe Clear Distance Between Pie & Trench Wall 18" 91' on Both sides 24" 91' on Both sides 30TT 91' on Both sides 36" 1/3" Diameter of Pipe on both sides 3o - Diameter of Pipe Clear Distance Between Pipe & Trench Stall 42" 1/311 Diameter of Pipe on Both Sides 48" 1/311 Diameter of Pipe on Both Sides 54" 1/3-� Diameter of Pipe on Bath Sides 6011 to 8411 1/3t1 Diameter of. Pipe on Both Sides E. Jointing: All pipe shall be closely jointed and sealed with staff mor- tar, composed of one part Portland cement and two parts sand, so placed as to form a durable watertight joint. The ends of the pipe shall be Thoroughly cleaned and wetted before making the joint. After any section of pipe is laid and before any succeeding section is laid, the lower half of the bell of the pipe last laid shall be thoroughly plastered by troweling on an even layer of mortar. The spigot end of the next section of pipe shall then be inserted, holding it as high as possible unzi.l it is fully inserted and then lowering it gently on the mortar. After the section is laid and uniformly matched and the sections have been fitted as close as the construction of the pipe will permit, the lower half of the inner circumference of the joints of pipe over 18 inches in diameter shall be sealed and packed with mortar and finished smooth and even with the adjacent sections of pipe. Before this mortar has attained initial set, additional mortar shall then be ap- plied from the outside and forced into the unfilled portion of the bell or groove to fill completely the annular space around the spigot or tongue, For bell and spigot pipe, a bead shall be formed on the outside by troweling on mortar downward at an angle of 45 degrees from the outer edge of the bell to the spigot of the last laid section. For tongue and groove pipe, a 'bead shall be formed extending at least one -inch on either side of the joint and of approximately semi --circular cross-section or triangular cross-section. If the triangular cross-section is used, it.shall be formed by placing the mortar at approximately 4S degrees outward from the extreme edges of the bead. All pipe joint surfaces from 27 -inches up through 84 -inches, will be wiped oil the inside. 'the outside surface of the joint need not be wiped. For pipes too small to permit finish of the inside surface of the joint, a tight stone of burlap or other equivalent materials shall be dragged through the pipe past the new joint to remove any fins of mortar. Special care shall be exercised in pl�ci.ng adjacent pipe sections to avoid movement of the pipe in place and the breaking of the mortar bond at completed joints. After the initial set, the mortar on the outside shall be protected from air and sun with a thoroughly wetted earth or burlap cover or acceptable equivalent, which shall be kept wet for a minimum of 48 hours or until the backfill has been completed. 'No jointing shall be done when the atmospheric temperature is at or below 40 degrees F. and when necessary, because of a sudden drop in temperature, joints shall be protected against freezing for at least 24 hours.' After placing, any pipe which is not in true alignment or which shows any undue settlement after laying or is damaged, shall be taken up and relaid or replaced without extra compensation. - 31 XVI F. Joints and Curves: Pipe to be placed along curves shall consist of whatever pipe joint lenghths or beveled and joints of pipe, or combination thereof that are required to place the pipe on the designated center line curve with no more than one-half of the tongue length of the ,pipe exposed from its normal fully closed joint position. The amount of bevel, "drop", or shortening of the pipe joint length by the bevel shall not exceed the amount shown below for the pipe sizes indicated: Pipe Diameter (I. D.) From 12" to 27" inch inclusive From 30" to 51" inch inclusive From 54" to' 84" inch inclusive Maximum Amount of Bevel or Drop 2 inches 3 inches 4 inches C. Backfilling: As soon as practicable, all spaces excavated under this specz ica ion, and not occupied by the permanent structure shall be back- filled. Backfill material shall be free from lumps, wood, or other extra- neous material. After the bedding has been prepared, the pipes installed as required, the mortar joints have had sufficient time to set up and are not subject to damage during backfilling, selected grandular materials shall be placed along both sides of the pipe equally, in uniform layers not exceeding 2 feet in depth (loose measurement), wetted and thoroughly compacted so that each side of the pipe there shall be a berm of thoroughly compacted material at least as wide as the external diameter of the pipe, except insofar as undisturbed material obtrudes into the area. Backfilling shall be continued in this matter to within 1.2 inches of the subgrade. Special care shall be taken to secure thorough compaction of the material placed under the haunches of the pipe. In the case of embankments, the remainder of the fill above the top of the pipe shall be placed in accord- ance with the provisions for placing roadway embankment as prescribed in the pertinent specifications included in these specifications. No con- struction traffic will be permitted to cross any pipe culvert or sewer un- til the specified minimum depth of fill above the pipe has been placed and consolidated in accordance lvith these provisions. H. End Finish and Connections: The upstream ends of culverts shall be formed to a smooth roan ed lip entrance by filling the recess in the bell With joint mortar which shall be placed and cured in accordance with the Provisions for jointing in these specifications. Where new culverts are constructed as extensions to culverts or sewers in place, the construction shall include all wort: necessary to provide a proper connection between the new structure and the old as indicated on the plans. I. Minimum Fill: The minimum fill from the crown of the roadway to the top of Te pipe shall be 18 inches unless otherwise shown on the plans. LINED CHANNELS. A. Description: These specifications shall govern the furnishing of all materials and labor for construction of concrete channel lining where in- dicated on the plans. This specification includes the excavation for chan- nels in accordance with these specifications. - 32 - B. Materials: Lined channels shall be constructed of 5-' thickness Port- land cement concrete made from materials and constructed in accordance with Section XIV. of these specifications and having a compressive strength of not less than 8000 pounds per square inch at 28 days. C. Standard Details: Lined channels shall be built according to the di- mensions shown on the plans and in accordance with standards for typical detail of concrete flume and ditch lining of the City of Hurst. Lining shall have minimum thickness of 5" and maximum side slopes of 1 to 1. Lining shall be reinforced with 6x6x6 wire mesh, or 3/8" steel on 1 foot centers. D. Excavation: Excavation shall be made to the required depth and of sufficient width to construct the work to grade, form and dimensions. All sort and yielding or other unsuitable and unstable materials shall be removed and replaced with acceptable materials; the subgrade then shall be compacted to the satisfaction of the Engineer. The subgrade shall be wet- ted before any concrete is placed. No undercutting of the subgrade will be permitted. Where subgrade is undercut, the space between the bottom of the forms and the subgrade will be filled either with field sand or concrete and compacted. E. Forms: The forms shall be of wood or metal, straight and free from warp, and of sufficient strength to resist springing during the process of depositing; and compacting the concrete. Straight forms of wood shall be 2 -inch nominal thickness surfaced plank, or of metal of an approved section with a flat surface on top and bottom. Forms for use on radii may be of flexible wood or metal, The forms shall be of a depth equal to the depth of the concrete section in which they are in contact, and so de- signed as to permit secure fastening together in correct position. Forms shall be securely staked, braced, and firmly held to the required line and grade. All forms shall be cleaned thoroughly and wetted before the con- crete is placed against them. F. Reinforcement: Wire mesh or steel shall consist of sheets of the di- mensions as specified or as shown on the plans. The size and spacing of the wires or steel shall conform to the details. Wire mesh shall be placed as shown on the plans; it shall not be bent at right angles to the forms. A minimum lap of six (6) inches shall be used at all splices. Reinforce- ment shall be properly supported to maintain its position equidistant from top and bottom surface of the slab. G. Concreting. No concrete shall be placed unless the subgrade, forms and reinforcement, if required, have been checked and approved by the Engineer. Concrete shall be deposited on a moist subgrade. During placing, the con- crete shall be thoroughly spaded next to the forms, and shall be carefully tamped, using an approved tamper until a uniform dense concrete is obtained. After the concrete has been placed, compacted and shaped to conform to the dimensions shown on the plans and after it has set sufficiently to avoid slumping, the surface shall be finished with a wooden float to secure a smooth surface and broomed. - 33 XVII. XVIII. Channel lining shall be poured in sections of lengths indicated on the plans with maximum spacing between expansion joints of 80'--011. At ex- pansion joints the joint shall be 3/4" wide filled with bituminous fill- er and No. 3 asphalt coated dowel bars 21-0" long on 18" centers shall be installed at the joint with a 1/2" round dowel sleeve 5" in length at the asphalt coated end of the dowel. Sleep holes shall be provided on each nide of lined channels at 101-0" center to center with 3 cubic feet of coarse gravel as a pocket at each hole, or as directed by the Engineer. I{. Curin Curing shall be accomplished as specified in Section XIV. USE OF EXPLOSIVES. Should the Contractor elect to use explosives in the prosecution of the work within the Town of Westlake, they shall obtain a permit from the Town Secretary's office, as required by the Town Code. PROTECTION OF UTILITIES. Where new or old utilities are adjacent to or in line of the work, and which will not be removed, the Contractor shall protect such utilities as necessary. And if in the opinion of the Engineer such utilities would be damaged by the machinery, hand excavation may be required. The Contractor shall be responsible for all damages to utilities that have been put in prior to his moving onto the job site. 34